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Australia Telescope National Facility. Information tools for maths, observers. Visiting the ATNF sites. Information for observers. Square Kilometre Array. Astronomical tools software. Sociology! Visiting our telescopes. Webcams interactive maps.

Education programs resources. Information tools for observers. Visiting the ATNF sites. Information for coursework percentage, observers. Square Kilometre Array. Astronomical tools software. Visiting our telescopes. Webcams interactive maps. Education programs resources. This webpage has been designed to give you an understanding of flu pulsar astronomy. We start by describing how astronomers discover and subsequently observe pulsars.

We continue with a section on the theory of pulsars where we explain why pulsars are thought to be neutron stars (the collapsed core of a star that underwent a supernova explosion). We explain how these pulsars are actually studied today and what we can learn from these amazing objects. We finish by providing links to other webpages for those of gcse coursework percentage you who would like to sociology essay read more about pulsars. The first pulsar was discovered by chance by Jocelyn Bell and Anthony Hewish in gcse maths coursework percentage 1967 who were actually studying distant galaxies at the time. Jocelyn Bell noticed small pulses of radiation when their telescope was looking at essay on audio a particular position in the sky and for a short time scientists thought they might be coming from an gcse maths percentage extra-terrestrial civilisation. In fact the source of these pulses were initially referred to essay on audio visual as LGM1, Little Green Man 1. Once established that the signals were not of this origin (and also not caused by people on percentage Earth), the unidentified object they were coming from menulis essay, was called a pulsar because the coursework percentage emission was pulsed.

The pulsar discovered by Bell and Hewish is now called PSR B1919+21: PSR stands for Pulsating Source of Radio and B1919+21 indicates the position of the pulsar in the sky. Even though pulsars were first discovered as radio sources they have now been observed using optical, X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes. Pulsar astronomers have now detected over 1500 pulsars and expect to discover thousands more during the on h1n1 flu next few years. More than two-thirds of the maths currently known pulsars were discovered using the Parkes radio telescope (the star of the film The Dish). The enormous Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Green Bank telescopes in America, the Molonglo telescope in Australia and the Jodrell Bank telescope in England have also made significant contributions in discovering pulsars. On Audio Visual! An astronomer who is searching for a pulsar will position the radio telescope at maths coursework percentage an area of sky for between a few minutes and twelve hours (longer observations allow the astronomer to detect weaker pulsars, but it requires the drinking of lots of strong coffee to stay awake!). The output of the telescope is continuously recorded by a computer that needs plenty of storage space - a recent survey at Parkes stored the equivalent of 8000 CDs worth of data. Later, the essay data are searched for periodic signals of the type found by Jocelyn Bell which, if found, confirm the presence of a pulsar. If the telescope was plugged into a suitable loud-speaker (instead of recording the coursework percentage data on essay to a computer system) and a bright enough pulsar was being observed then you would actually hear the percentage signal.

No wonder they were first thought to be extra-terrestrials trying to on h1n1 flu communicate with us! (More sounds of coursework pulsars are available at the Jodrell Bank pulsar webpage) The time interval between consecutive pulses is called the pulsar's period . Periods of one second are typical although pulsars have been discovered with periods from a few milliseconds (one millisecond equals 0.001 seconds) up to concentration statement eight seconds. The time between pulses is incredibly regular and can be measured very precisely. For example, a pulsar called PSR J1603-7202 is known to have a period of percentage 0.0148419520154668 seconds. On Audio Communication! However the maths periods of thesis all radio pulsars are increasing extremely slowly. The period of PSR J1603-7202 increases by just 0.0000005 seconds every million years! There are two main types of maths percentage pulsar. Those with periods of flu a few milliseconds and gcse maths percentage, whose periods are changing very slowly are called the millisecond pulsars . The remainder are simply called the ordinary pulsars. Before explaining what pulsars actually are let us consider what observations of pulsars tell us. Each pulse is found to be made up of radio waves of different frequencies just as white light is made up of all the colours of the on audio spectrum. It is observed that the coursework highest frequencies of a pulse arrive at a telescope slightly before the essay lower frequencies. The reason for this is gcse that the pulse has been travelling through the interstellar medium (the space between the pulsar and the Earth) and the different frequencies making up the pulse travel at cara essay inggris different speeds through this medium.

This is referred to maths coursework as the pulse dispersion and is due to the free electrons in sociology essay the interstellar medium. The more distant pulsars are dispersed more than the closer ones and so the time delays between the different frequencies can be used to estimate an percentage approximate distance to ipa a pulsar. Coursework! Except for a few pulsars in our neighbouring galaxies, the cara essay Magellanic Clouds, most pulsars are found to be well outside of our solar system but within our Galaxy. The youngest pulsars (we call them young, but these pulsars are many thousands of years old) are found to lie within the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. The very youngest are found within supernova remnants which suggests that they were probably born during the gcse coursework explosion of a massive star. Concentration Thesis Statement! These young pulsars are found to gcse percentage be travelling through space very fast.

In fact some pulsars are moving 4000 times faster than a jumbo jet and would take only 16 seconds to travel between Sydney and London! As they age they move away from the plane of the Galaxy. The fastest pulsars will never come back - they will escape from the Galaxy and will travel off into the space between galaxies becoming undetectable. Others will slow down and then drop back towards the plane of the scoring essay Galaxy and will continue to oscillate up and down for the rest of their lives. Most stars in our Galaxy are in an orbit with another star (our Sun is unusual in maths coursework that it has no stellar companion). Similarly, many pulsars (in particular the millisecond pulsars) are found in binary systems. The companions to pulsars have been found to be normal stars, planets, white dwarf stars, neutron stars and even, for on audio visual, one recent discovery, another pulsar. Studying the pulsar's motion in a binary system allows astronomers to gcse determine many facts about the visual pulsar, its companion and the orbit.

For some systems, the coursework mass of the concentration statement pulsar can be determined and is found to maths coursework percentage be roughly one and a half times as massive as our Sun. For The! We also know that pulsars are very small and gcse maths, so they must be very dense. In fact, one teaspoon of essay on audio visual communication pulsar material would weigh a billion tonnes if we brought it to the surface of the Earth. So what have we learnt? The observations of pulsars tell us that: they are far away they are very small they are very dense they can orbit other objects they were probably born in supernova explosions they are travelling very fast through space the time between pulses is extremely regular although they are slowing down very slightly. In the next section we attempt to put all these observational results together to form a picture of what a pulsar actually is. In 1934 Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky predicted the existence of neutron stars: stars which have collapsed under their own gravity during a supernova explosion. Stars like our Sun will not form neutron stars. After exhausting all their fuel, such small stars become white dwarfs. Only very massive stars (at least a few times more massive than our Sun) will undergo a supernova explosion and become neutron stars.

Even more massive stars will collapse to form black holes. It was thought that neutron stars would never be detectable using telescopes on Earth. They were predicted to be very dense, to spin very fast, have a tiny radius of only about 10km and to possess large magnetic fields. However, we now know that charged particles moving along the magnetic field could cause beams of radiation to be emitted from the coursework percentage magnetic poles. Then, as the neutron star rotates, the beam would sweep across space. When this beam is in the direction of the Earth, a pulse may be detectable using a radio telescope (see the animation above). Could this lighthouse model answer the question of what a pulsar is? If we compare the observations of essay introduction pulsars mentioned in the first section with the description of neutron stars in the second we find many similarities. The pulses that occur at regular intervals correspond to a beam being emitted from a rotating neutron star.

The time between pulses, the gcse period, is the time that it takes for the neutron star to rotate once. The increase in the period is due to sociology the pulsar slowing down slightly as it loses energy. The youngest pulsars are found in gcse maths coursework percentage supernova remnants which is exactly the place we'd expect neutron stars to reliability for the essay be born. Therefore the most likely explanation is that a pulsar is gcse a neutron star that spins rapidly and emits radio waves along its magnetic axis. However, not all neutron stars are necessarily detectable as pulsars. The beams from essay on h1n1, some neutron stars may never pass the Earth and will therefore not be detected. Also, other neutron stars may have been pulsars in the past, but the process that causes the gcse beam of radiation (which is not fully understood) may have turned off or is just too weak to be detected. The types of pulsar - the ordinary and millisecond pulsars - can be explained by assuming that all of the concentration thesis statement millisecond pulsars were originally in orbit with another star. After the pulsar formed, matter was pulled from the gcse coursework percentage companion star on to the pulsar.

During this process the pulsar rotated faster and faster until it became one of the millisecond pulsars. Later, the companion star died and became either a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole depending on its original size. If the companion star remained in orbit with the pulsar, a binary millisecond pulsar system would be formed. Reliability Of Holistic For The Mcat Essay! Nobody is quite sure of what exactly happens to a pulsar as it ages and slows down. It is likely that after a few million years the beam of radiation switches off. This may be because the coursework percentage pulsar's magnetic field decays away or that the beam just gets weaker and weaker until it is undetectable. Such problems may be solved by studying pulsars discovered in recent surveys.

The Parkes multibeam pulsar surveys. In January 1997 a 13-beam receiver was installed on the Parkes radio telescope. Essay On H1n1 Flu! This receiver, the multibeam receiver , was initially built to search for galaxies but has been used by many astronomers in their search for pulsars. In an investigation that has just been completed, pulsar astronomers from all over gcse coursework percentage, the world have collaborated in a search for pulsars in the plane of our Galaxy and have discovered more than 700 pulsars. This phenomenal success was mainly due to essay on audio the receiver that allowed 13 areas of the sky to be observed simultaneously. Because of this, the astronomers could afford to spend much longer on any particular area of sky than was possible in the past. Such long observations allowed the survey to detect weaker pulsar signals than those found during previous surveys. Quite a few of the new discoveries are interesting and include young pulsars, distant pulsars, pulsars in gcse binary systems and even more millisecond pulsars. Other pulsar surveys have also been carried out using this receiver. One, the high latitude survey , was mainly a search for toefl essay ipa, millisecond pulsars.

This survey did not discover as many pulsars as the survey we described above, but it found what is probably the most exciting pulsar system known. We'll discuss this discovery in the next section. Astronomers using the Parkes radio telescope have discovered a pulsar in orbit with another pulsar. This has caused great excitement in the astronomical community because these pulsars allow theories of gravity to be tested with phenomenal accuracy. Gcse Maths Percentage! We already know that millisecond pulsars in binary systems are superb probes for studying Einstein's general theory of relativity. The orbits of such pulsar systems have been studied for many years to see if the sociology observations agree with prediction. Einstein's theory agrees perfectly with the observations. The new double pulsar system will allow even better tests to be made. Many astronomers around the world work together to maths coursework percentage make regular observations of a few millisecond pulsars. These observations can subsequently be used to investigate how stable atomic clocks on Earth are, to improve our understanding of the masses and motions of the planets in our solar system and, with luck, to detect gravity waves. Gravity waves are ripples in menulis the fabric of space and time and come from coursework percentage, very extreme regions of spacetime such as the very early Universe and toefl preparation ipa, the cores of galaxies.

Therefore, by maths studying a pulsar we can improve clocks on Earth and, at the same time, study the concentration thesis statement very early Universe and colliding supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies! The interior structure of gcse maths percentage neutron stars. Neutron stars are only the size of a city and are very far away yet astronomers can work out what is going on beneath their surfaces - how? They do this by looking for small changes in the rotation of the pulsar. Essay On H1n1! We have already mentioned that pulsars slow down as they get older. However, for a few pulsars they suddenly start spinning faster (in a very short space of time) and then slowly return to their original spin rate; that is they glitch. The Crab pulsar which is in the Crab nebula (shown in a picture above) has been observed to gcse coursework do this many times.

The reason for glitching is not very well understood and is actively being investigated. However, current explanations suggest that glitches are probably due to the way the interior superfluid of on audio visual communication a neutron star interacts with the crystalline surface. The SKA will be one of the gcse percentage next generation radio telescopes. It will have far greater sensitivities than any current radio telescope because its large total collecting area will be one square kilometre. This will allow much fainter pulsars to essay be seen. It will probably not be a single surface but will consist of many smaller collecting antennas. Astronomers are hoping that this new telescope will allow them to discover a pulsar orbiting a black hole.

If found, this will be the gcse percentage most extreme pulsar system known. It will enable more general relativity tests to be done and alternative theories of gravity to be investigated. The SKA will also enable astronomers to find pulsars in distant galaxies. There are many sites on the web that contain information about pulsars. Here are a few that we find particularly interesting. The ATNF pulsar catalogue provides information on all the known radio pulsars. Cosmic Search Magazine contains an article by Jocelyn Bell giving an account of the discovery of pulsars. Essay Introduction! Cambridge Physics - Discovery of Pulsars provides another introduction to pulsar astronomy. Pulsars at Arecibo describes the gcse coursework percentage research carried out at the Arecibo Observatory.

Pulsars at of holistic for the essay Jodrell Bank Observatory provides more advanced tutorials on gcse coursework percentage pulsar astronomy.

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kk thesis Frederick Suppe argues that skeptical arguments from Descartes to Feyerabend are based upon the KK thesis, and therefore are not worth worrying about. It seems to me that his argument is unwarranted, and gcse coursework the purpose of this paper is to thesis statement, reconstruct skeptical arguments without the KK thesis. Roughly speaking, these skeptical arguments presuppose a weaker version of the KK thesis which does not require either: (1) the identity of the knower A and the knower of maths A's knowing, or (2) actual existence of the knowledge of A's knowing. If we refuse this weaker thesis, this will cause a serious problem to the very enterprise of sociology essay epistemology. Surely Suppe should take skeptical doubts more seriously. In his forthcoming book, Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation , Frederick Suppe dismisses traditional skepticism as follows: The collapse of the Cartesian and Empiricist epistemological programs into pervasive skepticism has been one long series of dismal corollaries to the level confusions inherent in Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the KK Thesis.

Kantian subjectivism and its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and associated radical relativisms, are attractive alternatives only against the background of those confusions. These level confusions naturally led epistemologists to conflate the evidential basis for knowledge with reasons given in justification for knowledge and philosophers of science to conflate the gcse maths, reasoning given in scientific articles with the cara menulis, belief formation process used to obtain scientific knowledge. (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5) In short, Suppe claims that the majority of traditional philosophers have kept making level confusions by accepting the KK thesis, and gcse coursework percentage this is the only reason skepticism seemed so forceful to them. If Suppe is essay right, since the KK thesis is now widely rejected, we have no reason to worry about skepticism. But I think that Suppe's claim is unwarranted. 2. The KK thesis and what is wrong with it. To start with, we should refresh our memory about what the KK thesis is and what is wrong with it. the KK thesis is coursework percentage is supported by several epistemologists.

Jaakko Hintikka (1962) is the most famous recent defender, and he formulates the thesis as follows: namely, if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p . There are several arguments against the KK thesis. First of all, even though Hintikka 'proved' the thesis from several axioms of epistemic logic (Hintikka1962, 104-105), his proof was circular because the axioms used in the proof implicitly presupposed the KK thesis (Chisholm, 1963, 784-787). Of course this circularity does not show that the KK thesis itself is problematic. The First substantial objection is that the KK thesis implies that the knower has self-knowledge, that is, the knower a knows about himself/herself/itself (Carrier 1974, 141). This means that according to the KK thesis those who do not have the concept of reliability of holistic scoring for the self (children, dogs etc.) have no knowledge whatsoever. This sounds counterintuitive. Hilpinen's (1970) argument is also illuminating. Suppose a knows that p implies that a has a justified true belief that p, namely. where Bap means a believes that p and Jap means a is maths percentage justified in believing that p. Suppose also that the mcat, distribution law about knowledge holds, namely. (2) and (3) are widely admitted among philosophers. Then from (1), (2) and (3), we can infer as follows:

There are several dubious conjuncts on the right side of (4), but the most dubious one is the term BaJap, namely a believes that a is justified in believing that p. Does this follow from a knows that p (this is what (4) implies)? Hilpinen thinks that it is imaginable that a fails to gcse percentage, recognize the situation (e.g. she has enough evidence for the knowledge claim) that justifies a's believing that p, even when a knows that p. This is an uncomfortable consequence of the essay flu, KK thesis.[1] Hintikka's reply to these challenges is that he is talking about a strong notion of 'knowing' (Hintikka 1970). From this point of view, the above difficulties are not difficulties, but merely show that there are differences between Hintikka's strong sense of knowing and 'knowing' in our ordinary language. For example, the first difficulty with self knowledge disappears by asserting that children and dogs do not have this strong sense of knowledge. Gcse Maths Percentage. The second problem with the KK thesis by Hilpinen can be dealt with by interpreting Jap quite strongly. For example, read Jap as a has incorrigible evidence for believing that p. This implies that a has a proof for incorrigibility of the evidence, and therefore something like BaJap and JaJap are required. On H1n1. With this strong interpretation, the accepted formula Kap - Bap J ap p does (almost) imply the KK thesis.[2] Suppe (1977) criticizes this move, because the strong sense of knowledge does not help us in understanding scientific knowledge. He enumerates four features of scientific knowledge which are not suitable for the KK thesis.

First, the KK thesis make a correspondence notion of truth impossible, but this is necessary for scientific knowledge. Second, the gcse coursework percentage, standards of rationality in science keep changing, and this together with the KK thesis implies a relativism. Third, science's procedure to assess knowledge claims is fallible, therefore the concentration camps, incorrigibility does not apply to science. Finally, the KK thesis make sophisticated observational knowledge impossible, because scientific observations depend on background knowledge, which is gcse maths percentage not incorrigible. I totally agree with Suppe that Hintikka's strong sense of knowing does not help us much in menulis bahasa inggris philosophy of science (though I disagree with him in that the rejection of the KK thesis eliminate the skeptical doubt about gcse maths coursework correspondence notion of essay introduction truth and the relativism on the scientific rationality). I think that this is a good reason to reject the maths percentage, KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for skepticism, we also have a reason to reject skeptical doubts. 3. Suppe's argument against skepticism. In chapter 10 of his 1989 book, Suppe argues that skeptical arguments by Berkeley, Hume, Kuhn, Feyerabend and toefl preparation ipa others depend essentially on percentage, the KK thesis (332).

What is the argument for this claim? In the first section of this chapter Suppe provides an overview of the history of skeptical arguments by empiricists up to essay on h1n1 flu, the logical positivism, but Suppe does not mention the gcse coursework percentage, KK thesis here. In the next section Suppe summarizes Feyerabend's (1958) relativistic argument, and here Suppe tries to connect Feyerabend with the KK thesis. Feyerabend claims that phenomena cannot determine interpretations of essay on h1n1 flu sentences. Feyerabend's argument goes as follows. If an observer O utters a sentence S because he observes a phenomenon P and coursework recognizes that S 'fits' P, this relation of phenomenological adequacy between P and S is another phenomenon, P'. But O can recognize P' by relating it to S', and this calls for concentration camps, P'', S'', and so on gcse maths percentage, infinitely. Camps. Therefore phenomena P cannot determine the interpretation of the sentence S. Gcse Maths Coursework Percentage. Rather, we need somewhat arbitrary assignments of interpretations. (Feyerabend 1958, 155; see also Suppe 1989, 312). Suppe also attributes to Feyerabend following position: experience is incapable of essay on audio visual communication playing any significant role in ascertaining the maths percentage, truth of either theoretical or observation assertions (Suppe 1989, 312).

This position seems to be derived from the introduction, above-mentioned infinite regress argument, but this derivation is possible only if one accepts the gcse maths coursework percentage, K-K Thesis (Suppe 1989, 313). His argument for this claim is sociology essay worth quoting: For if this thesis is percentage accepted, then from the fact that experience cannot show that such a correspondence holds and from the vaguely plausible assumption (tacit in sociology his discussion) that such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in experience, it would follow that one cannot know that P is gcse true; hence one cannot know that he knows that P; hence via the K-K Thesis, one cannot know that P. But we do have empirical knowledge, so we must reject the idea that fitting the physical world plays any role in knowledge. But this argument (and I can think of reliability of holistic scoring mcat no other one compatible with what he says that will serve his purposes) depends essentially on gcse maths percentage, the K-K Thesis, for if it is denied, the requirement of essay truth by correspondence is totally compatible with Feyerabend's other claims: One can experientially know that P, where P fitting or corresponding to maths coursework, the physical world is a condition of knowledge, but one cannot know that one knows that P. (Suppe 1989, 313; italics in original) This is the most elaborate argument to on audio visual, connect the gcse, KK thesis and skepticism (or relativism) that I can find in Suppe's book. What does this argument show? First, Suppe reconstructs a plausible line of Feyerabend's argument using the KK thesis (thus the KK thesis is a part of the sufficient condition for Feyerabend's relativism). The argument goes as follows:[3] F1. Suppose that a correspondence between a sentence and physical objects play an visual, essential role in knowledge. F2.

Experience cannot show that a correspondence between P and physical objects holds (because of maths percentage infinite regress). F3. Such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in experience. F4. If S knows that P, then S knows that S knows that P. (the KK thesis) F5. From F1, If S knows that S knows that P, S knows about the correspondence between P and physical objects.

F6. On Audio. From F2 and F3, S does not know about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F7. From F5 and F6, S does not know that S know that P. F8. From F4 and F7, S does not know that P. F9.

Since we do have knowledge, assumption F1 is false. Then he shows that in this line of argument the KK thesis is essential. He also adds, I can think of no other [line of argument] compatible with what he says that will serve his purpose. That is all. This is supposed to show that the KK thesis is a necessary condition for Feyerabend's relativism! Suppe provides similar arguments for the relationship between Cartesian/Humean skepticism and the KK thesis in his 1977, but they do not do any better than this. He constructs lines of argument for Cartesian skepticism and Hume's skeptical argument against gcse coursework percentage induction using the essay, KK thesis, and gcse percentage shows that the KK thesis is essential in these lines of argument.[4] Despite this obvious gap in inference, he asserts that the cara menulis essay bahasa, KK thesis has showed up at virtually every crucial juncture as empiricism has proceeded toward complete capitulation to the skeptic (Suppe 1989, 332). From this, he arrives at this conclusion: a viable epistemology of science, where experience plays an essential role in knowledge, must begin by denying the K-K thesis, thereby rendering the gcse coursework percentage, Cartesian skeptic's challenges question-begging (332).

Thus, to undermine Suppe's claim, all I have to do is to show that there are plausible alternative interpretations of reliability of holistic scoring mcat essay skeptical arguments which do not appeal to the KK thesis. I don't have to even show that my interpretations are more plausible than Suppe's, because to gcse maths coursework, avoid dismissing skeptical doubt as question-begging, mere existence of a plausible and non-question-begging interpretation of skepticism is enough. This is what I try to show in essay on h1n1 the next section. 4. Alternative interpretations of traditional skeptical arguments. The purpose of this section is to gcse maths percentage, propose alternative interpretations of skeptical arguments, ones by the KK thesis and on h1n1 others by what I call the HEKK thesis (I will explain the details of the thesis later). Maths Percentage. The basic idea of my own interpretations is that a thesis weaker than the KK thesis supports the purpose of skeptical arguments enough. To illustrate, take an example from the bahasa, above Feyerabend's argument.

My alternative interpretation goes as follows: F'1. Gcse Percentage. F'2. F'3. The same as F1, F2 and concentration camps thesis statement F3. F'4. If S knows that P, then someone can know that S knows that P. F'5. From F'1, If someone knows that S knows that P, he/she knows about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F'6.

From F'2 and F'3, no one can know about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F'7. From F'5 and percentage F'6, no one can know that S know that P. F'8. From F'4 and F'7, S does not know that P.

F'9. Since we do have knowledge, assumption F'1 is false. The point is that, since F6 is a quite strong claim, F4 can be replaced with a weaker thesis F'4. In this way we do not need the KK thesis to reconstruct Feyerabend's argument. The following sections are attempts to investigate the possibility of this kind of interpretations for traditional skeptical arguments in general. I use Descartes, Berkeley and Hume as examples. 4-a.

Descartes' methodical skepticism. First of all, we should look at Descartes's methodical skepticism. Toefl Essay Preparation Ipa. Actually I do not think that Descartes' own statements are clear enough to settle the argument. Here is the statement of his methodical skepticism. . reason already convinces me that I must withhold assent no less carefully from what is not plainly certain and indubitable than from what is obviously false; so the discovery of some reason for coursework, doubt as regards each opinion will justify the rejection of all (Descartes [1642] 1971, 61). The methodology itself is stated here clearly, but he does not tell us how reason convinced him to accept the strict methodology. Here is a room for interpretations. First, let us assume Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the KK Thesis (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5).

Then surely we can understand why Descartes set the cara essay bahasa, criteria so high. To know something, I should know that I know. To know that I know, I should eliminate all possibilities that I am mistaken. I must withhold assent when I cannot eliminate such counterpossibilities, because in that case the belief is not knowledge. Therefore methodical doubt is necessary (Suppe 1977, 717-718).

To put slightly more formally, the maths coursework, interpretation goes as follows (using Cartesian Demon as an example): D1. If I know that there is an external world, then I know that I know that there is an external world. (the KK thesis) D2. I know that I know that there is an external world only if I eliminate all counterpossibilities to the existence of external world. D3. I cannot eliminate the essay on audio communication, counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is deceiving me.

D4. Coursework Percentage. Therefore I do not know that I know that there is an external world. D5. Therefore I do not know that there is an external world. This interpretation attributes a rather radical view to Descartes, however. If the reason to adopt methodical skepticism is the KK thesis, then actually going through the reliability for the, methodical doubt is a necessary condition for maths coursework, making a belief a piece of knowledge. This means, people who have neither read Descartes' book nor heard about methodical doubt have no knowledge whatsoever. Maybe Descartes was that radical, but here is another interpretation. Descartes is playing the role of an epistemologist who classify beliefs into menulis essay bahasa inggris, knowledge and non-knowledge, and methodical doubt is gcse a criterion for the classification. Under this interpretation, to go through the skeptical doubt does not make a belief a piece of knowledge, any more than an investigation of an ornithologist does not make a raven black.

Thus those who never think about methodical doubt can have knowledge, whether or not an epistemologist come to them and confirm that their beliefs are knowledge. From these considerations, I would like to propose a weaker version of the KK thesis to which Descartes might have committed himself: (5) if a knows that p, then someone can know that a knows that p. This thesis explains Descartes motivation equally well. We might have knowledge but we do not know which beliefs are knowledge. According to (5), when we start an epistemological investigation, we should be able to find out which ones are knowledge, and as before, knowledge should be beyond any doubt. Therefore, until epistemologists can eliminate the essay introduction, possibility of the existence of the Cartesian demon, they should withhold classification of knowledge and non-knowledge.

This is why epistemologists should obey the gcse maths coursework percentage, strict methodology. To put in essay on h1n1 flu the same way as above D1-D5: D'1. If I know that there is an gcse percentage, external world, then someone can find out of holistic scoring mcat essay that I know that there is an external world. Maths Coursework Percentage. (a variation of (5)) D'2. Someone can find out that I know that there is an external world only if he/she can eliminate all counterpossibilities to the existence of external world. D'3. No one can eliminate the counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is deceiving me. D'4. Therefore no one can find out essay on h1n1 that I know that there is an external world. D'5.

Therefore I do not know that there is an external world. Some comments on (5) are in order here. First, even though I call it a weaker version of the KK thesis, it is not the gcse maths coursework percentage, KK thesis at all. The KK thesis requires the identity of the knower a and the knower of a's knowing, while the essay flu, weaker thesis does not.[5] The KK thesis requires the actual presence of knowledge about knowledge, while the weaker thesis requires only the possibility of such knowledge about maths coursework percentage knowledge. Another comment is necessary about this possibility. When I say someone can know, what kind of modality do I mean? Since Descartes' program requires that we actually can find out essay communication which beliefs are knowledge, 'logical possibility' or 'causal possibility' is gcse percentage not suitable for the purpose (logically speaking I can be omniscient, and causally speaking, there can be a world in concentration camps which I know about the Cartesian demon without violating any causal law).

I would like to propose a modality of maths coursework percentage humanly possible: if a reasonably competent human being meditates like Descartes under ordinary circumstances, she should be able to distinguish knowledge from concentration camps, non-knowledge eventually. With this last consideration, it is appropriate to rewrite (5) as follows: (6) If a knows that p, then it is humanly possible that someone knows that a knows that p. where H stands for humanly possible and Ex stands for a quantifier there is at least one x such that. I shall call the thesis (6) the gcse maths coursework, HEKK thesis henceforth. To sum up, in this subsection I have proposed an alternative interpretation of Cartesian skepticism using the bahasa, HEKK thesis instead of the KK thesis. If all our epistemological efforts fail to maths coursework percentage, show that there is no such thing as the Cartesian demon, then the HEKK thesis is enough to destroy most of our knowledge (and this is what happened in Descartes' case).

In this sense, Cartesian skepticism does not depend on the KK thesis. 4-b. Berkeley's rejection of substance. Next, let us briefly look at Berkeley's skeptical argument against substance, or Matter. Here is the flu, base line of his argument: But, though it were possible that solid, figured, moveable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of gcse maths coursework bodies, yet how is it possible for us to know this? Either we must know it by Sense or Reason. As for our senses, by them we have the visual, knowledge only of our sensations, ideas, or those things that are immediately perceived by sense, call them what you will: but they do not inform us that things exist without the mind, or unperceived, like to those which are perceived.

This the gcse coursework percentage, materialists themselves acknowledge. -- It remains therefore that if we have any knowledge at all of essay on audio visual external things, it must be by reason inferring their existence from what is maths coursework percentage immediately perceived by cara essay bahasa inggris sense. But what reason can induce us to believe the coursework percentage, existence of bodies without the visual communication, mind, from what we perceive, since the very patrons of Matter themselves do not pretend there is any necessary connexion betwixt them and our ideas? (Berkeley [1710] 1965, section 18) Thus, basically, Berkeley says that we cannot know about substances from either of our two sources of knowledge, sense or reason. Therefore we have no knowledge about substance. The question is, is this argument dependent on the KK thesis? Of course if we assume that Berkeley accepts the gcse coursework percentage, KK thesis, we can understand why Berkeley thinks that the necessary connexion between substances and concentration thesis statement ideas is percentage essential for the inference to substance; it is because, to know that we know about scoring for the substances, we should be absolutely certain that we know about substance.

Thus the argument can be reconstructed as follows: B1. If A knows that there are substances, then A knows that A knows that there are substances. (the KK thesis) B2. Our evidence comes from one of two sources, sense or reason. B3.

Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances. B4. Therefore A does not know that A knows that there are substances. B5. Therefore A does not know that there are substances. But this is by no means the only way to understand Berkeley. The HEKK thesis serves exactly the same function as the KK thesis. Under the HEKK thesis, if we know about substance, then it should be humanly possible that epistemologists will find out that we certainly know about substance. But under human conditions epistemologists can use only gcse maths sense and reason, and essay visual neither of them assure us such a certainty.

Thus the interpretation goes as follows: B'1. Maths Coursework Percentage. If A knows that there are substances, then someone can find out that A knows that there are substances. (the HEKK thesis) B'2. Our only ways of inquiry are by sense or by reason. B'3. Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances. B'4. Therefore no one can find out that A knows that there are substances. B'5. Therefore A does not know that there are substances.

I think that in this case the HEKK thesis provides an even better interpretation. For, if Berkeley has the KK thesis in mind, all he has to show is the absence of certainty about essay knowledge on substance. But his proof is intended to be much stronger: impossibility of certainty about the knowledge, by any human being. This scope of proof (whether it is valid or not) is more suitable for the HEKK thesis than for coursework percentage, the KK thesis. 4-c.

Hume's skepticism on concentration camps statement, induction. Hume's famous argument on gcse coursework, inductive knowledge can be treated in a similar manner. For Hume, the menulis essay bahasa, sole source of gcse coursework percentage our knowledge is what he calls impressions. Essay Preparation Ipa. Then how is the knowledge about causation possible? Hume argues that all we know about causation from impression is gcse maths percentage a constant conjunction of cause and effect in our memory (Hume [1739] 1878, Bk.

I, Pt. III, sect. VI). However, he feels that a constant conjunction is not enough for causation. Rather, he thinks that people require that the concentration camps thesis statement, relation between cause and effect be a necessary connexion (ibid.). Coursework. How can we know about such a necessary connection? One way is to assume the following principle: instances, of which we have no experience, must resemble those, of sociology introduction which we have had experience, and that the cause of maths coursework nature continues always uniformly the same (ibid. italics in original). Call this the principle of uniformity.

Obviously there can be no demonstrative arguments to scoring mcat, prove the principle (ibid. italics in gcse coursework percentage original). But this principle is bahasa inggris not even probabilistic knowledge (in Hume's own terminology, probability; ibid.). The only possible way for our probabilistic knowledge to go beyond our impressions is to assume some causation (ibid., Bk. I, Pt. III, sect. II), and maths coursework percentage the principle apparently goes beyond our impressions. But the principle to essay on audio visual, be proved is necessary to gcse coursework percentage, establish such causation.

Therefore, since the essay, same principle cannot be both the cause and gcse coursework effect of another, the principle itself cannot be a probabilistic knowledge (ibid., Bk. I, Pt. III, sect. VI). Now we are not interested in the details and validity of Hume's argument, but in the overall structure of it. Menulis Essay Bahasa. Like Berkeley's argument, this argument can be reconstructed using the maths coursework, KK thesis, but again like Berkeley's argument, Hume argues against not existence but possibility of essay on audio knowledge about knowledge. One characteristic feature of gcse maths percentage Hume's argument is his explicit appeal to circularity or infinite regress in the denial of the principle of uniformity. On Audio Visual. This seems favorable for the KK thesis interpretation because the KK thesis implies an infinite regress (Kap - KaKap - KaKaKap - . ). On the other hand, my HEKK thesis does not imply such an infinite regress. Gcse. But still I think that Hume's infinite regress argument can be reconstructed without the KK thesis. Let us compare following formulatons: (a) The KK thesis interpretation. H1.

If A knows that x causes y, then A knows that A knows that x causes y. Essay On H1n1 Flu. (the KK thesis) H2. A knows that A knows that x causes y only if A can infer that x causes y from evidence available for gcse, A. H3. To infer that x causes y, A need to preparation, know that the principle of uniformity holds.

H3 replacing that x causes y with that the principle of uniformity holds) H5. Since H4 entails an infinite regress, A never has enough evidence to infer that x causes y. H6. Therefore A does not know that A knows that x causes y. H7.

Therefore A does not know that x causes y. (b) The HEKK thesis interpretation. H1. If A knows that x causes y, then someone can find out that A knows that x causes y. (the HEKK thesis) H2. Maths. Someone can find out that A knows that x causes y only of holistic scoring for the if it is gcse maths coursework percentage possible to essay on h1n1, infer that x causes y from evidence available for human beings. H3. Gcse Coursework. To infer that x causes y, the principle of uniformity is necessary. H4. The only essay (humanly possible) way to establish the principle of uniformity is to infer it from itself. H5.

Since H4 entails an infinite regress, no one can know that the coursework percentage, principle of uniformity holds. H6. Therefore no one can find out that A knows that x causes y. H7. Therefore A does not know that x causes y. In this case the cara, two interpretations are not symmetrical, but it seems to me that both formulations interpret Hume's argument well. 5. Gcse Maths Coursework Percentage. The HEKK thesis and the fate of epistemology.

As my analyses in reliability for the the previous sections show, the KK thesis has played almost no role in skeptical arguments. Coursework. Even if the flu, above-mentioned philosophers did hold the KK thesis, their arguments can be easily reformulated without the thesis. Rather, I have found that what they need is a weaker thesis, the HEKK thesis. What is the point of replacing the KK thesis with the gcse percentage, HEKK thesis? Can we not dismiss the essay preparation ipa, HEKK thesis as easy as the KK thesis? First of all, the HEKK thesis is immune from maths percentage, most difficulties raised against the KK thesis. The HEKK thesis does not require self-knowledge of the knower, and it does not imply that the knower believes that she is justified in cara menulis inggris believing. Therefore the maths coursework, HEKK thesis does not require Hintikka's strong sense of knowledge. The place of incorrigibility in the strong sense of knowledge and in the HEKK thesis are also different. The strong sense of essay preparation ipa knowledge requires that the incorrigibility should be attained with the evidence available to the knower. The HEKK thesis also requires a kind of incorrigibility, but this is an incorrigibility after all humanly possible efforts by epistemologists.

This point is related to gcse coursework percentage, another point, namely the camps thesis statement, HEKK thesis is even compatible with a kind of externalist notion of knowledge. The externalism is gcse a position that the justification of a belief has nothing to do with evidence available to cara menulis bahasa inggris, the knower herself. Coursework Percentage. For example, existence of an appropriate causal relation between the menulis inggris, knower and the state of affairs expressed by gcse maths percentage p may be enough to say that 'a is justified in believing that p'. Concentration Camps Thesis. The HEKK thesis is compatible with this view as far as the 'appropriate causal relation' is maths coursework percentage knowable to essay, epistemologists. Since I agree with many philosophers that externalism is a promising approach to analysis of scientific and other kinds of knowledge, Suppe's objection to the KK thesis, i.e. the notion of knowledge associated with the gcse maths, KK thesis do not help us in essay preparation ipa understanding scientific knowledge, does not apply to the HEKK thesis.

But, one may object, two of coursework percentage Suppe's points had to do with the fact that if we accept the concentration camps thesis, KK thesis, we are led to skepticism/relativism. Maths Coursework. This is exactly what I have proved about the HEKK thesis. Then why do we not dismiss the HEKK thesis for this reason? I think that the answer lies in essay communication the amount of sacrifice to get rid of skepticism. To give up the KK thesis does not cause us a lot of problems, so if by doing so we can get rid of maths percentage skepticism, we are willing to give it up. But giving up the HEKK thesis has a grave consequence. The HEKK thesis is a corollary of the following thesis: The thesis (7) states that no truth is out of our reach.

I would like to call it the 'epistemological optimism' thesis. Introduction. To reject the HEKK thesis leads to rejection of the 'epistemological optimism' thesis, which is a widely accepted thesis, especially by both sides of the realism - anti-realism debate (e.g. Putnam 1981,134; Fine 1986, 131; Devitt 1997, 232 ). To see the result of the rejection in gcse maths percentage epistemology, let us consider a negation of the HEKK thesis: This is equivalent to. with some easy transformations, namely, a knows p, and it is humanly necessary that, for all x, x does not know that a knows that p. It is true that we are capable of knowing something under (10), but at the same time we can never know that. This sounds too much a sacrifice to avoid skepticism. Instead of discarding the HEKK thesis, if we adopt Kantian subjectivism or its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and associated radical relativisms (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5), we can avoid skepticism to some extent. In this sense, despite Suppe's claim quoted in of holistic scoring the introduction, these are still attractive alternatives. The relationships among theses I have discussed in this paper are illustrated in Figure 1. In this paper, first I have discussed that the KK thesis with Hintikka's strong sense of knowledge is unhelpful for maths, the inquiry of sociology scientific knowledge.

This seems a good reason to reject the KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for skepticism, we can also reject skepticism. However, Suppe's argument to gcse maths coursework percentage, connect skepticism and essay on h1n1 the KK thesis is weak, and I have argued that the HEKK thesis, a weaker version of the KK thesis, is enough for skeptical arguments. Unlike the KK thesis, to give up the HEKK thesis causes a serious epistemological problem. Gcse Maths Percentage. It seems to me to adopt one of Kantian alternatives is much more attractive than giving up the HEKK thesis. Certainly Suppe should take skepticism more seriously.References. Barense, J.G. (1966) Knowledge and true belief: Hintikka's logic of one notion, presentation at the APA Pacific Division Annual Meeting. Berkeley, G. ([1710] 1965) Principles of essay flu Human Knowledge , reprinted in Berkeley's Philosophical Writings . ed. by D.M. Armstrong.

New York: Collier Macmillan. Carrier, L.S. (1974) Skepticism made certain in The Journal of Philosophy 71, 140-150. Chisholm, R.M. (1963) The logic of knowing in maths The Journal of Philosophy 60, 773-795. Descartes, R. ([1642] 1971) Meditations on First Philosophy , translation in E. Anscombe and P. Geach (trans., ed.) Descartes; Philosophical Writings . Prentice Hall. Devitt, M. (1996) Realism and Truth , second edition with new afterword.

Blackwell. Fine, A. (1986) Shaky Game; Einstein, realism and the quantum theory . University of thesis statement Chicago Press. Feyerabend, P. (1958) An attempt at a realistic interpretation of experience in Proceedings of the maths coursework percentage, Aristotelian Society 58, 143-170. Hall, M. (1976) Skepticism and knowing that one knows in Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6, 655-663. Hilpinen, R. (1970) Knowing that one knows and the classical definition of knowledge in Synthese 21, 109-132. Hintikka, J. Concentration Camps Thesis Statement. (1962) Knowledge and gcse coursework Belief: An introduction to the logic of the two notions . Reliability Scoring For The Essay. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. --. (1970) 'Knowing that one knows' reviewed in Synthese 21, 141-162. Hume, D. ([1739] 1878) A Treaties on Human Nature , a reprint edited by T.H. Green and T.H. Grose.

London: Longman, Green and gcse maths coursework co. Putnam, H. Concentration Camps Thesis. (1981) Reason, Truth and History . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Suppe, F. (1973) Facts and empirical truth, in Canadian Journal of gcse maths Philosophy 3, 197-212. --. (1977) Afterword, in F. Suppe (ed.) The Structure of concentration camps Scientific Theories , 2nd ed. Maths Coursework. University of Illinois Press.

--. (1989) The Semantic Conception of Theories and camps thesis statement Scientific Realism . University of Illinois Press. --. Gcse Coursework Percentage. (forthcoming) Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation .

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6 Terrifying Bedtime Stories That Kept Kids in Line. Long before Edward Gorey offed children alphabetically, writers sought to instill good manners and exemplary behavior through strange, scary cautionary tales. Percentage? Some stories were so bizarre it's a wonder the kids that read them turned out okay. Here are a few of our favorites. Der Struwwelpeter , penned by German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann and released in Germany in flu 1845, is maths coursework full of ipa, tales of children misbehaving—and the awful, bizarre fates they suffered for doing so. Augustus doesn’t eat his soup, and so he wastes away and dies. Harriet plays with matches and sets herself on fire. But none is stranger or more terrifying than the tale of poor Conrad, also known as Suck-a-Thumb: One day, Mamma said: Conrad dear,

I must go out and maths, leave you here. But mind now, Conrad, what I say, Don't suck your thumb while I'm away. The great tall tailor always comes. To little boys that suck their thumbs, And ere they dream what he's about. He takes his great sharp scissors out. And cuts their thumbs clean off, and cara essay bahasa inggris, then, You know, they never grow again. When Conrad sucks his thumb again, he is visited by the tailor, who chases the boy with a giant pair of scissors and cuts off both of his thumbs . Gruesome—and, if Der Struwwelpeter ’s sales are any indication, perhaps an gcse effective teaching tool for parents: By 1876, over 100 editions had been printed. This story is another Hoffmann specialty, from the on audio visual communication book Slovenly Betsy , which was published in 1911 specifically for American audiences. Gcse Maths Coursework Percentage? A mother cautions her daughter not to cry so much, but the girl doesn’t listen—and eventually, she cries her eyes out : And now the poor creature is cautiously crawling. Preparation? And feeling her way all around; And now from their sockets her eyeballs are falling; See, there they are down on the ground.

My children, from gcse maths coursework, such an example take warning, And happily live while you may; And say to yourselves, when you rise in the morning, I'll try to be cheerful today. Essay On H1n1 Flu? That’s not the only horrifying tale in Slovenly Betsy , which will be re-released this July. There’s also the story about Polly, who plays with the boys even after she’s told not to—so of course her leg is severed while roughhousing. And proud Phoebe Ann holds her head up so high that her neck stretches freakishly, and she has to cart her noggin around on a wagon. 3. “The Tom-Boy Who Was Changed Into A Real Boy.” The title of this story—from the book Little Miss Consequence , published in 1880—is self-explanatory: A little girl (the daughter of an Earl) loves playing with the boys so much that, eventually, she becomes a boy. At last she grew so coarse, E’en her voice was rough and hoarse, And her attitudes became so like a boy’s, boy’s, boy’s, That they thought it only right, On a certain Summer’s night, To change her sex completely, without noise, noise, noise.

After her transformation, the unfortunate girl is maths coursework percentage literally shipped off—a boat's captain is paid to take her on essay on audio as a sailor. “And a caution may it prove to you and me, me, me!” 4. Gcse Percentage? “Le Petit Chaperon Rouge” (“Little Red Riding Hood”) In later versions of French writer Charles Perrault’s “Little Red Riding Hood”—published in sociology essay 1697 as part of his book, Tales and Stories of the gcse percentage Past with Morals. Tales of essay preparation ipa, Mother Goose —Little Red and her grandmother are rescued from the belly of the wolf by a woodcutter. Not so in the original, where the wolf devours them both, permanently. “Children, especially attractive, well bred young ladies, should never talk to strangers, for if they should do so, they may well provide dinner for a wolf,” Perrault writes. “I say ‘wolf,’ but there are various kinds of maths coursework, wolves. Essay On Audio Communication? There are also those who are charming, quiet, polite, unassuming, complacent, and sweet, who pursue young women at gcse maths coursework percentage home and in the streets.

And unfortunately, it is these gentle wolves who are the most dangerous ones of all.” The seven tales of these badly behaved boys, written and illustrated by German Wilhelm Busch in 1865, begin with the sociology essay introduction duo tying bread crusts together with thread and laying a trap for a widow’s chickens. When the birds eat the crusts and gcse maths coursework, swallow the intertwined strings, they panic and eventually become fatally entangled. The widow cooks the chickens, but Max and Moritz steal them with a fishing pole. They similarly terrorize a tailor, a teacher, their uncle, a baker, and farmer Bauer Mecke. When Mecke notices that the boys have slit open his bags of grain, he puts the boys in the bags instead, and sends the bag through a mill, grinding them to bits. “Here you see the bits post mortem/Just as Fate was please to sort ‘em,” Busch writes. Their bits are eaten by ducks, and no one is sorry to see the boys go. 6. Toefl Essay Ipa? “Rebecca, Who Slammed Doors for Fun and Perished Miserably.” Published in maths coursework percentage 1907, Hilaire Belloc’s Cautionary Tales for Children: Designed for the Admonition of reliability mcat essay, Children between the ages of eight and percentage, fourteen years is technically a parody of 19th century cautionary tales. Satire or not, it’s still full of stories that should give naughty children pause—including “Rebecca,” who Belloc writes “was not really bad at heart, but only rude and wild: she was an aggravating child …” One day, to frighten her uncle, Rebecca slammed a door that had a marble bust above it; the bust fell, and “laid her out.” Her funeral sermon “showed the toefl ipa dreadful end of one who goes and slams the door for Fun.” There’s also “Jim: Who ran away from his Nurse, and was eaten by a Lion,” Henry King: Who chewed bits of gcse coursework, string, and was early cut off in Dreadful agonies,” and “Matilda: Who told Lies, and essay, was Burned to Death.

These books and stories filled children's school desks and maths percentage, bookshelves before falling out of favor. A few decades ago, there were few children’s bedrooms not adorned with Raggedy Ann and Andy paraphernalia. Raggedy Ann Stories , the first book about the doll duo, came out in 1918, followed by cara menulis bahasa, Raggedy Andy Stories in 1920. More than 40 books about the well-worn dolls followed, with more than 60 million books, dolls, and other Raggedy products sold in the last 100 years. 2. READ WITH DICK AND JANE BY WILLIAM GRAY AND ZERNA SHARP. Many baby boomers grew up learning how to read with these primers, which were, by nearly all accounts, incredibly boring and repetitive. A gripping excerpt: Come Dick. Come and gcse maths coursework, see. Come, come. Come and see. Come and see Spot.

Look, Spot. Oh, look. Look and see. Oh, see.” One good thing did come out of the Dick and Jane series, though: The Cat in the Hat . Essay Preparation Ipa? The director of Houghton Mifflin’s educational division read a Life magazine article about how deadly dull young students found Dick and Jane . Maths Coursework? He suggested that Theodor Geisel—a.k.a. Dr.

Seuss—put his fantastical illustrations and way with words to work on a book that would help children learn basic words. “The only job I ever tackled that I found more difficult was when I wrote the Baedeker that Eskimos use when they travel in essay visual communication Siam,” Seuss later said. 3. THE HISTORY OF LITTLE GOODY TWO-SHOES PUBLISHED BY JOHN NEWBERY. You’ve no doubt heard the phrase “goody two-shoes” to gcse coursework describe someone who always follows the rules and does the right thing. But unless you’re a big fan of 18th-century children’s literature, you probably haven’t read the story that popularized the saying. Goody Two-Shoes, published in 1765, is the tale of an orphan girl who was so impoverished that even a pair of thesis statement, shoes was out of grasp; she had to make do with just one. She receives her nickname when she eventually receives a full set. Gcse Maths? Goody Two-Shoes grows up to be a teacher and on audio, marries rich, thus teaching children that being virtuous pays off.

4. ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS BY JOHANN AMOS COMENIUS. Maths Percentage? Published in 1658, Orbis sensualium pictus is the first book intended for essay ipa children that included illustrations to help with visual learning. Gcse Maths Percentage? Though it originated in Germany, the popular book was quickly translated to other languages, including English in essay on h1n1 flu 1659. A quadrilingual edition (Latin, German, Italian, and French) was published in 1666. 5. THE ADVENTURES OF PINOCCHIO BY CARLO COLLODI.

Almost everyone is familiar with Pinocchio—the movie. Gcse Maths Coursework Percentage? But you might be hard-pressed to find a child who has recently picked up the book, which was originally published in essay introduction full in gcse percentage 1883. At one point, the menulis essay bahasa story of the little wooden boy with the lie-detector nose was one of the best-selling books in the world, with 35 million copies sold. 6. Maths Coursework Percentage? CADDIE WOODLAWN BY CAROL RYRIE BRINK. Reliability Of Holistic Mcat Essay? A Newbery Medal winner in 1936, the gcse maths coursework pioneer adventures of 11-year-old Caddie Woodlawn were partially based on the life of concentration camps thesis, Carol Ryrie Brink’s grandmother, Caddie Woodhouse Watkins. Gcse Percentage? (You can still visit the mcat real Caddie’s house in Menomonie, Wisconsin.) 7. THE WATER-BABIES, A FAIRY TALE FOR A LAND-BABY BY CHARLES KINGSLEY.

When you know the real purpose of The Water-Babies, it seems implausible that it became a beloved children’s book at all: Author Charles Kingsley viewed his 1862 work as satire that supported Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species . In Water-Babies , a young chimney sweep falls into a river and turns into gcse maths coursework a “water-baby,” where he encounters strange creatures. The story also touches on such child-friendly topics as religion, education, and working conditions. Nevertheless, the tale was a hit with children. But it’s no surprise that the story no longer resonates. As The Guardian reported in 2016, “Today The Water-Babies itself is close to unreadable due to the way it presents the casual prejudices of its time: the division of the world into racial hierarchies, the completely nonchalant caricaturing of Irish people.” 8. Of Holistic Scoring For The Mcat Essay? THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK SAMBO BY HELEN BANNERMAN. Despite a long history of maths coursework, controversy, this 1899 story has never gone out of toefl essay ipa, print. Gcse Coursework? In it, a little boy named Sambo is hunted by tigers in toefl the jungle.

The tigers fight amongst themselves, chasing each other so fast that they turn into gcse percentage ghee. Sambo’s father finds the pile of butter and his mother uses it to flu make a giant stack of fluffy pancakes (naturally). Though the tale itself is a rather benign, Kipling-esque folk story, the maths coursework percentage illustrations depicted a degrading “pickaninny” stereotype of African-Americans, a particularly baffling choice given that the story setting suggested India. Essay Communication? Poet Langston Hughes deemed the drawings “amusing undoubtedly to gcse maths the white child, but like an unkind word to menulis essay bahasa one who has known too many hurts to enjoy the additional pain of maths coursework percentage, being laughed at.” 9. THE HISTORY OF SANDFORD AND MERTON BY THOMAS DAY. Thomas Day’s 1783 tale about two 6-year-old boys from different economic classes was meant to indoctrinate children in visual communication the teachings of philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Gcse Coursework Percentage? It was an instantaneous best-seller, and by 1870, the book had gone through 140 editions.The tome eventually inspired a satirical book called The New History of Sandford and menulis bahasa, Merton which proclaimed that it would “teach you what to don’t.” 10. A PRETTY LITTLE POCKET-BOOK BY JOHN NEWBERY. Gcse Maths Percentage? John Newbery’s title as “the father of children’s literature” is well-earned—the publisher was the first to essay communication see the gcse percentage merit and need for dedicating a chunk of the literary market specifically to children. Published in 1744, his first book for essay visual communication kids, A Pretty Little Pocket-Book , consisted of simple rhymes that helped children learn the letters of the gcse alphabet. The book was originally sold with a ball for concentration camps thesis statement boys and a pincushion for percentage girls. 11.

HITTY, HER FIRST HUNDRED YEARS BY RACHEL FIELD. Long before Toy Story , there was Hitty. Hitty , a 1930 Newbery Medal-winning book, is the story of a wooden doll who comes to life in 1829 when she’s carved out of a piece of ash in Maine. Readers follow a century of Hitty’s adventures, including meeting Charles Dickens and surviving a shipwreck. The book was a hit with children, and it didn’t take long for toefl preparation them to demand Hitty dolls of their own. Though Rosemary Wells and Susan Jeffers updated Hitty’s adventures in 1999, the new version hasn’t inspired the same craze as the original. Gcse? Ask anyone about anthropomorphic trains and their first response is concentration camps thesis likely to be Thomas the gcse maths coursework percentage Tank Engine. Or, if you’re a purist, The Little Engine That Could . Tootle , first published in 1945, is likely way down the list, if he even comes up at all. But for toefl essay many years, the gcse maths industrious engine was on track to become one of the best-selling books of all time. 13.

WHEN WE WERE VERY YOUNG BY A.A. MILNE. Camps? You may know Milne for creating Winnie-the-Pooh and the other citizens of the Hundred Acre Wood, but this collection of poetry came out gcse two years before his book about the honey-loving bear—and at one time, it was almost as popular. The Hardy Boys have made plenty of appearances on bestseller lists over the years, but these days, their popularity seems to be coming to an end as quickly as their plotlines. The Boys are almost 90 years old, and their age is showing—even with modern-day tools like cell phones and computers, most of flu, their sales come from nostalgic parents. Coursework Percentage? 15.

THE TOUCH ME BOOK BY PAT AND EVE WITTE. With more than two million copies sold, this sensory book was a hit with young children who loved to interact with the essay communication elements on each page, like snapping a rubber band, squishing a sponge, and feeling sticky tape. Gcse Coursework Percentage? Sensory books were still a bit of a novelty in 1961 when The Touch Me Book was first published, but today, they’re a dime a dozen—and The Touch Me Book just doesn’t seem to have the staying power of Pat the Bunny , another early touch-and-feel book that still tops best-seller lists. Before he became a bestselling author, John Green worked for the American Library Association’s Booklist magazine for six years. Now, the camps thesis statement novelist and Mental Floss YouTube host is gcse maths coursework returning to the stacks once more, delivering bibliophiles over two dozen trivia bits about the sociology essay free repositories of gcse coursework percentage, knowledge. Sociology Essay? Since Clearchus—the ancient Greek ruler and student of the philosopher Plato—founded the first-known public library around 364 BCE, readers from around the world have rifled through sacred Buddhist manuscripts in Bhutan’s unique temple library; felt equal parts awed and gcse coursework, overwhelmed upon entering the Library of Congress; and paid homage to Morocco’s gatekeepers of knowledge by visiting the world’s oldest still-operating library in Fez, which was founded by a woman named Fatima al-Fihri in cara menulis inggris 859 CE [PDF]. Learn more about these fascinating libraries—along with which famous children’s author was once a librarian, which president was guilty of having a library book that was 221 years overdue, which Francis Ford Coppola film may never have been made without a school librarian’s petition, and more—by watching the video above, or by subscribing to our YouTube channel. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. With Help From Photoshop and AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in That Photo.

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essay right womens From Past to gcse maths percentage Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the sociology essay introduction, fundamental importance of women achieving the vote, attention paid to the history of its long struggle has been marginalized. Coursework Percentage! And, the reasons for the depth of its opposition ignored. Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for essay communication women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and the United States.

Yet dynamic struggles for maths coursework percentage women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though these movements differed in their reasons and on audio communication tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the following topics, this essay attempts to help rectify the narrow and maths percentage unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the 19th/early 20th century struggle for women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the essay preparation ipa, resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in the politics of their own nations. In the later decades of the 19th century, the expansion of the telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to be communicated from coursework percentage, country to on h1n1 flu country. Improvements in percentage, transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to attend international gathering where they met and organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as:

The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Berlin in 1904. Toefl Essay Ipa! A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and coursework each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world. At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in non-western and southern countries. Essay Visual! When Willard saw the link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. Socialists were bent on organizing working class women.

Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to gcse coursework create successful female oriented movements in some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to gender relations. German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the Women#146;s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to visual the suffrage cause.

Groups in other nations imitated the British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in gcse, Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the of holistic essay, parliament building demanding equality of the sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of universal female suffrage. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952. Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and gcse European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in of holistic scoring for the mcat, 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an gcse almost exclusively Latin American organization. Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of ipa, women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. As an maths coursework percentage example, women in reliability of holistic for the essay, India by the end of the gcse, nineteenth century were forming their own organizations.

The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for suffrage was long and sometimes bitter. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to vote in cara menulis essay inggris, uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Gcse Maths Coursework! Liberalism was a strong force in ipa, this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed.

The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Percentage! Signed by close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of of holistic scoring essay, its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to gcse maths form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over communication, 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at percentage, this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe. The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in a Parade.

In Europe, Finland, Norway and essay on audio communication Iceland were among the first to grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only maths coursework extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in essay, their societies for many decades. Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and gcse vigorous in essay on h1n1 flu, the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in 1920. Gcse Maths Coursework! It was an concentration statement equally long process in Britain where women#146;s important work in WWI provided an opportunity for percentage the government to cara menulis essay inggris act on suffrage without seeming to coursework percentage capitulate to the tactics of the more militant arm of England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. France was one of the last in Europe to essay enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the most radical critique of women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the maths coursework, 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. On H1n1 Flu! French women won the vote as late as 1944. French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss.

It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from coursework, 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to toefl preparation ipa vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from maths coursework, stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and visual political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of women to gcse percentage England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for on audio visual women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men. Gcse Maths Percentage! Universal suffrage for reliability of holistic scoring all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution.

Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to gcse coursework both men and women. In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to women, or extend only limited suffrage. Reliability Of Holistic Scoring Mcat Essay! In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in maths, village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of education before they vote. In Oman, only reliability essay 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in gcse maths coursework, 2005 granted women the right to vote in the 2007 elections. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to men.

Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to sociology essay political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an attempt to ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for women to push for the vote. In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of soldiers serving overseas in order to maths secure an election victory. A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the vote because the franchise had already been entrusted to naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the cara bahasa inggris, United States the same argument was used, as was the maths, fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. Essay On H1n1! The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the gcse coursework percentage, incorporation of sociology essay, female suffrage into general reform movements.

The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for women, even with the passage of gcse maths, substantive reforms. Concepts of the inherent equality between men and reliability for the women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to make. Gcse Maths! Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for prohibition as a way to essay preparation safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in a position to press for gcse coursework percentage equal salaries. For The! Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions.

In the colonized states, the colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in gcse coursework percentage, need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of reliability scoring essay, women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for women#146;s reforms abroad. Gcse Maths! On the other hand, nationalistic movements in colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at modernization with an improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the active support of women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state. Kimura Komako in New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and essay ipa laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the gcse maths percentage, vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges. Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on the other hand, challenged the essay flu, existing order by threatening the basis of women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act.

Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Gcse Maths Coursework! Citing claims that Islam and Kuwaiti custom bar women from flu, holding office, the head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it. This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is true that at coursework, times even well educated women in flu, countries with high percentages of gcse percentage, female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of essay, women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of a Lose of Female rights.

Some women and men worried that if the concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in areas which they were not prepared to. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed. Gcse Maths Coursework! Most women did not want to give up what they saw as essential characteristics of their female nature if voting meant that they would have to enter the essay communication, rough and disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and mother would be undermined. Gcse Coursework Percentage! In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values.

Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and statement work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Maths Coursework! Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. In the years leading up to World War II, members of the Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and statement as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on gcse women to wait their turn. Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to take their proper place by sociology introduction, the side of men, the timing was wrong for maths coursework percentage a #147;votes for concentration thesis women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism.

#149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Women in Mexico sadly missed the chance to gain suffrage in gcse maths coursework percentage, 1930s because of these fears. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to sociology introduction implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, was ratified by the states, and coursework only needed formal declaration to essay on audio communication be made into law. That declaration never came. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and gcse maths coursework fears that women would be unduly influenced by statement, the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment.

Since the maths coursework, suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to essay let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in 1889 with the passing of laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the right to join political parties. In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed.

It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of gcse, 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the right to vote. But from the start, the toefl essay preparation ipa, state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in gcse maths coursework percentage, 1963 and passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power in 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and disbanded. Toefl Essay! The future looks brighter today.

A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the coursework percentage, cultural framework of Iran, and noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women. Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the old resistance and essay hostile attitudes against it.

This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in political office alongside men. Of interest is the maths percentage, use in over 41 countries of parity quotas and preparation quota laws to achieve political gender balance. Responding to strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in maths coursework, many new constitutions, like the one of on audio communication, Rwanda, and recently in the constitution of gcse maths, Iraq. This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women.

The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to be women. India in 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of essay introduction, this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to maths coursework percentage enter institutions as members and office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of local politics. In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in camps thesis statement, the Lower House of Parliament.

Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984. Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000.

#147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by maths coursework, Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by on h1n1, Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on this website.